This exotic scenery is by the Austrian painter Rudolf Ernst (1854-1932). Ernst was a famous orientalist painters and did here something which looks a little historical. But I think it doesn't matter. He was alsways looking fpr the exotic, the strange. So it's more a kindof pre-fantasy painting.
The disembarkment of Francis I in Valencia by the Spanish painter Ignacio Pinazo y Camarlench (1849-1916). The French king Francis I was made a Spanish prisoner when he lost the battle of Pavia in 1525. Despite he is received like a king it was one of Spains greatest Triumphs. Maybe the painting was meant as kindof consolation for all the later defeats.
The Lady of Shalott (1888) by the British painter John William Waterhouse (1849-1917). The Lady of Shalott" is a Victorian ballad by the English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892) and tells the story of a noble Lady and her tragic love to the Arthurian knight Sir Lancelot. Like many of these Arthurian legends the subject was especially popular amongst the Pre-Raphaelites who did various paintings. Nevertheless I don't understand why Waterhouse is often called himself a Pre-Raphaelite. He had absolutely no relation to them and exploited only the popular subjects in a cheap way.
At the Colosseum by the British painter Harold Hume Piffard (1895-1938). Piffard depicts here an elegant Roman noblewoman watching comfortly the bloody spectacle below. A well constucted contrast indeed.
Joaquín Crespo at Los Colorados battle (1893) by the Venezuelan painter Arturo Michelena (1863-1898). With this battle General Crespo decided 1884 a civil war and became president of Venezuela. Though nothing special, it's interesting to see that these young states in Latin America glorified their presidents and victories in the same way as in old Europe. That's mostly because artists like Michelena learned their trade at the European academies.
History painting dates back to the Renaissance and was long considered to be the "grand genre". Nevertheless it has its peak in the 19th century forged by Neoclassicism and Romanticism. There it became the artistic contribution in the process of the construction of National Identities of the European and American nations.
At the same time history painting under the influence of historism pretended to be "realistic", to show history how it has been. Above all it was this pretension that led to the great failure of History painting AND Realism at the end of the century.
When artists and their public realized that telling history always will be subjective and a painting will always be an illusion Realism and history painting lost their ground to modern painting.